Measurement – Technology makes it possible to measure things very precisely. Atomic clocks keep time to an accuracy of one millionth of a second per year. Lasers can measure distance to a millionth of a meter. A scientist’s most important tools are the ones used for measuring – telescopes, spectroscopes, microscopes, stethoscopes, radar, thermometers, corers, Geiger counters, scales, barometers. –Bill Nye, Episode 97
- The mechanized clock, 15th century – It quantified time.
- The Gregorian calendar, 1582 – Debugged the Julian calendar, jumping ahead 10 days to synchronize the world with the seasons
- atomic clock – in the mid-1950s, the first reliable atomic clocks were constructed. In 1967, the second was redefined in terms of the electronic transitions of a cesium atom.
Measurement – the act or process of measuring; the specific size of something that is determined by measuring.
tools used in measurement
- altimeter, anemometer, balance, barometer, clock, Geiger counter, hourglass, level, plumb, rule, ruler, scale, seismograph, spoon, stopwatch, tape measure, thermometer, timer, yardstick
units of measurement
- acre, bushel, byte, calorie, carat, centimeter, cord, cup, day, decibel, degree, fathom, foot, gallon, gram, hectare, horsepower, hour, inch, kilohertz, kilometer, knot, league, light-year, liter, measure, megabyte, meter, mile, minute, mph, ounce, peck, pint, pound, quart, rod, second, tablespoon, teaspoon, ton, volt, watt, yard
- engineered instruments – spectrometers, oscilloscopes, cameras, telescopes, interferometers, tape recorders, thermometers etc. and tools like clocks, scale that help in improving the accuracy, quality and utility of the information obtained from an observation.
descriptions of measurements
- big, bright, close, cold, deep, dim, distant, empty, enormous, equal, equivalent, fast, few, heavy, high, hot, large, light, long, loud, low, many, massive, minute, narrow, quiet, scant, shallow, short, slender, slim, slow, small, tall, thick, thin, vast, wide
- Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity being measured.
- Precision is a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another. Precise measurements are highly reproducible, even if the measurements are not near the correct value.
Challenges for you to work on…
- PhET Interactive Science Simulations (interactive simulations website) – simulations encourage quantitative exploration, offer measurement instruments including rulers, stop-watches, voltmeters and thermometers. Manipulate these interactive tools. Responses are immediately animated effectively illustrating cause-and-effect relationships. Multiple linked representations (motion of the objects, graphs, number readouts, etc.)