Visualization and spatial reasoning – representing three-dimensional objects and assemblies.

- spatial thinking, visualization, 3D

- Visual Patterns – thinking about a pattern, or algorithm, that could be used to predict a future step.

High scores on mental rotation tests correspond to higher scores on math questions that involve geometry or story problems. And spatial cognition turns out to be a better predictor of success in engineering than SAT or GRE scores, for example.

- Men Are Better At Maps Until Women Take This Course – A bit of education can erase a definitive cognitive gap between men and women.

- Can Teaching Spatial Skills Help Bridge the STEM Gender Gap? – Hold, Build and Sketch 3-D Objects: Sketching 3-D objects improves students’ mental visualization and rotation skills. Have children build an object out of blocks and then sketch it. Then have them rotate the object and sketch it again. Recent research also suggests that “holding an object in your hand seems to help you visualize it

- Developing Spatial Thinking – sample video resources available as of August 2016 to support the Developing Spatial Thinking curriculum. Video resources include mini-lecture presentations that introduce each module in the curriculum and narrated videos that show how to draw rotations of spatial objects.Students can watch the videos as they work on sketching exercises in the course workbook.

Purdue Spatial Visualisation Test – Rotations – Take the test. Engineers are usually good at this test. This is a skill, that you can learn and get better with practice. Work on the activities, so you can improve and do better next time. Most girls need more opportunities for building visualization and spatial reasoning skills.

- internet archive Oct 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20151005145052/http://www.quiz.biz/quizz-250841.html
- Spatial Visualization Quiz – 7 questions – same

Explore spatial thinking * “test” your visualization skills * solve some spatial reasoning puzzles

- [/isographdots isographdots]

- puzzles spatial practice – (Flash- won’t work on iPads without additional app) – visualize and mentally manipulate objects. Dozens of interactive puzzles and games. Spatial thinking – important for engineering, visualization * Me and the key

- Spatial Reasoning Test – unfolded boxes. Test your spatial abilities with this spatial reasoning test. Use spatial reasoning to identify the incorrect cube.

- spatial practice – visualize and mentally manipulate objects. Dozens of interactive puzzles and games. Spatial thinking – important for engineering, visualization – quiz, lego shapes, grid paper, puzzles

- Spatial Visualization – description, research, comprehensive test and scoring

- interactive tool – create dynamic drawings on isometric dot paper. Draw figures using edges, faces, or cubes

Spatial reasoning is a category of reasoning skills that refers to the capacity to think about objects in three dimensions and to draw conclusions about those objects from limited information. Someone with good spatial abilities might also be good at thinking about how an object will look when rotated. These skills are valuable in many real-world situations and can be improved with practice.

According to the National Research Council (2006), ‘Spatial thinking is powerful. It solves problems by managing, transforming, and analyzing data, especially complex and large data sets, and by communicating the results of those processes to one’s self and to others’.

A diagram showing how to create a tesseract from a point |

A diagram showing how to create a tesseract from a point |

Tesseract –

In geometry, the tesseract, also called 8-cell or octachoron, is the four-dimensional analog of the cube, which is in turn the three dimensional analog of the square. The tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square; or, more formally, the tesseract can be described as a regular convex 4-polytope whose boundary consists of eight cubical cells. A generalization of the cube to dimensions greater than three is called a “ hypercube”, “n-cube” or “measure polytope”. The tesseract is the four-dimensional hypercube or 4-cube.

Isometric drawings are simple to draw, and represent the front, top, and side surfaces.

Spatial visualization – visualization in 3 dimensions from a 2 dimensional drawing – learnable, needs practice

- isometric applications (sketching, axes, coded plans)
- orthographic applications (projection, sketching, orthographic to isometric transformations)
- flat patterns and developments
- rotation of objects.

Sketching, 3D drawing

- web / desktop – Sketchup, TinkerCAD, Autodesk 123d
- iPad – Autodesk 123d, Notability – grid (not isometric)
- Android
- printable – isometric dot , isometric grid,

Also see 3D printing, CAD, modeling

Spatial Awareness Puzzles – rely on your ability to visualize and mentally manipulate objects in an environment. Spatial reasoning often requires comprehending 2D or 3D space. Our spatial puzzles and games test your ability to grasp the relationship and orientation of an object to its environment and any neighboring objects. Prove your spatial intelligence by conquering these challenging online spatial games.

[/Developing%20Spatial%20Thinking Developing Spatial Thinking] – 10 course modules (surfaces and solids of revolution, combining solid objects, isometric drawings and coded plans, orthographic drawings, orthographic projections of inclined and curved surfaces, flat patterns, rotation of objects about a single axis, rotation of objects about two or more axes, object reflections and symmetry, and cutting planes and cross sections)

Tinkercad – an easy-to-use tool for creating digital designs that are ready to be 3D printed into physical objects. Users are guided through the 3D design process through ‘Lessons’, which teach the basics before moving on to more complex modeling techniques.

Questions, activities

- quiz – results
- build 3-D from drawing – some kids having trouble with car dawings, scale
- follow LEGO picture instructions
- EV3 programming – Blocks
- ERAU spacial course
- IMAGES activities – practice skills > improve
- VARK, Brain Color, Skillcow – any relationship to spatial visualization results?

external image pents1.gif

**That’s engineering**

- visualization
- orthographic
- CAD
- blueprints

**Engineering ideas**

- spatial visualization, isometric, orthographic, pattern, rotation, projection, 2-D to 3-D Translation, Reverse Engineering, Diagramming, Mental Paper-folding, Pattern, Symmetry, Scale, Cause and Effect, Algorithms, Inference, Visualization

**Do it**

Here are some challenges for you to work on…

- Geomometric cross-sections – practice matching images and cros section rendering
- |?? – Make a Flat Ball – Create a ball that is as round as possible using simple geometric shapes cut out of paper and taped together.
- Make Drawings of Three-Dimensional Objects – Make scaled technical drawings of 3D objects using the Glass Box Theory.
- Spatial Awareness Puzzles – rely on your ability to visualize and mentally manipulate objects in an environment.
- setup and play one or more of the spatial games linked here – requires Authorware player
- suggest your own spatial visualization game
- find and test-drive websites or apps for smartphones or tablets to practice spatial visualization
- try some Origami suggestions or make your own
- LEGO engineer – software to download – design your own LEGO creations using virtual blocks
- Try the sample problems in these quizzes * Sample 1* 3, 4 & 5 * 6, 7 & 8 * 9 & 10
- game – requires Java

**Learn more…**

- Overview: Visual Spatial Skills – Hsi, Linn and Bell’s (1997)
*The role of spatial reasoning in engineering and the design of spatial instruction. Journal of Engineering Education, 86 (2), 151-158.*three-hour workshop. Based on the “Scaffolded Knowledge Integration” framework, their spatial strategy instruction includes teaching a repertoire of spatial strategies, making the process of distinguishing strategies and thinking about spatial problems visible, encouraging students to monitor their own progress and recognize their spatial reasoning strengths and weaknesses as independent learners, and taking advantage of social support for learning

- Pentominoes (made from 5 squares) are the type of polyomino most worked with. There are many problems and investigations associated with Pentominoes.* Think3d! – promotes the spatial reasoning critical to success in math and science. Spatial thinking skills are an indispensible foundation for understanding math and science concepts and yet there is a recognized gap in spatial reasoning training
- Visualizing.org – A community of creative people making sense of complex issues through data and design
- Introduction to 3D Spatial Visualization: An Active Approach – textbook (approx $50 paperback) – Take advantage of the power of technology to develop 3D spatial visualization skills and minimize the learning curve! This revolutionary multimedia CD-ROM and its companion workbook are aimed at helping users develop the skills they need for success in a variety of technical careers, including: engineering, architecture, medicine, computer database operation, chemistry, and more. Nine fun, easy-to-use modules provide first-hand experience in working with isometric drawings, orthographic projections, reflections and symmetry, surfaces and solids of revolution, plus combining solids.
- Purdue University – EnViSIONS project, VIZ Visualization Assessment and Training – resources
- Girls Rise Net – [[http://girlsrisenet.org/Spatial%20Visualization%20Activity.pdf|Spatial visualization activity .pdf
- Visualization and spatial reasoning –
- Spatial visualization worksheets
- ccss:m
- Spatial Course Learning Resources

## Spatial Thinking

SciTech 2017.8 https://engineering4kids.org/2017/08/20/spatial-thinking/

- Spatial Reasoning Test – This test contains 8 questions You should attempt to answer as many questions as you can. This is a time pressured test – work as quickly and accurately as you can. You have 2 ¼ minutes to answer. Take the text and record your score. You will take the test again in a few weeks. Most people improve when they have a bit more experience with spatial visualization.
- Spatial Awareness Puzzles and games – Try several of the puzzles. Many are Flash so won’t run on iPads, but are ok on desktops or laptops. Make a note of your favorites and say why.
- 3D drawing – Access the isometric dot paper or here on your iPad. external image img_0270.jpgexternal image img_0269.jpgexternal image img_0268.pngexternal image img_0267.png
- Compare the LEGO stack with the isometric and footprint drawings. Draw these on your iPad.
- Rotation – Look at the structure from a different side. Rotate the structure. Turn it over and view it from the bottom. Look down from the top. Draw the isometric diagrams for all SIX views.
- Create your own block structure. Draw the footprint and the isometric views for 2 different views of your structure. Swap with someone else and draw these views for this structure.
- Origami Crane – (video 4:12) The origami crane is the most well known of all the origami models: These instructions should make it easy for you to make your own beautiful crane.

Learn more…

- [/Spatial%20thinking Spatial thinking] – other resources, research
- Spatial Reasoning Test This test contains 8 questions You should attempt to answer as many questions as you can. This is a time pressured test – work as quickly and accurately as you can. You have 2 ¼ minutes to answer.
- Spatial Awareness Tests, Practice Aptitude Spatial Reasoning Tests & Questions Take a Free Test to begin Take the 8 question FREE test Receive your results instantly Spatial Reasoning tests are designed to test your ability to mentally rotate and manipulate shapes.
- Spatial Visualization tests – Non-verbal Aptitude Tests – Free Aptitude Test Online – Aptitude-Test.com Spatial Visualization tests are used to assess a person’s ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures.
- AutoDesk Introduction to Engineering Graphics and Visualization for Design – free online course, 6 lessons, approx. 2.5 hours