Arts and Crafts Movement – an international design movement that flourished between 1880 and 1910. It was led by the artist and writer William Morris (1834–1896). It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and often applied medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform, and has been said to be essentially anti-industrial.
Arts and Crafts movement was a late-19th century response to the Industrial Revolution mass production, and to the excessive decoration of the Victorian Era.
- preservation of human creativity and dignity of work in an economy increasingly dominated by machines
- goal of making handcrafted everyday objects of good design affordable
- unity of design – all elements of a home, from its architecture to its furnishings and decoration, as a total work of art
Works of great individuality were produced by different regions and countries because the local history, materials and sources were important.
- “Craftsman”-style architecture, furniture, and other decorative arts such as designs promoted by Gustav Stickley in his magazine, The Craftsman
- architecture – The “Prairie School” of Frank Lloyd Wright, George Washington Maher and other architects in Chicago, the Country Day School movement, the bungalow and ultimate bungalow style of houses popularized by Greene and Greene, Julia Morgan, and Bernard Maybeck are some examples of the American Arts and Crafts and American Craftsman style of architecture. Restored and landmark-protected examples are still present in America, especially in California in Berkeley and Pasadena