turbulence – violent, broken movement or agitation of a fluid or gas.
Turbulence – a flow characterized by chaotic property changes such as rapid variation of pressure and flow velocity in space and time. Turbulent flows are always highly irregular.
- The external flow over all kind of vehicles such as cars, airplanes, ships and submarines.
- The oceanic and atmospheric mixed layers and intense oceanic currents.
- The flow conditions in many industrial equipment (such as pipes, ducts, precipitators, gas scrubbers, dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, etc.) and machines (for instance, internal combustion engines and gas turbines).
- In the medical field of cardiology, a stethoscope is used to detect heart sounds and bruits, which are due to turbulent blood flow. In normal individuals, heart sounds are a product of turbulent flow as heart valves close.
- Turbulence – the most general case of unsteady fluid motion allowed by the Navier-Stokes equations. It is irregular and disorderly, it causes rapid mixing of heat and momentum, it is rotational and three-dimensional, it occurs over a range of scales, and, it is dissipative.
- agitation, chaotic, property, pressure, variation, irregular, flow, atmospheric, current, surface, duct, heat exchanger, combustion, turbine, valve