Parthian gold jewelry c.200AD

Jewelry (or jewellery) – small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used.

Beautiful pieces of jewelry have been crafted for centuries. There are many fine examples of early jewelry-making at the British Museum. With or without knowing it, many of these artisans were using engineering. Processes and structures of the final piece rely on engineering.

  • engineering in the jewelry pieces
  • jewelry-making equipment –

Some examples of early jewelry making

  • Neandertals create oldest jewelry in Europe – Their ornamentation came from nature: eagle claws. The 130,000-year-old necklace or bracelet had featured eight claws from white-tailed eagles. The claws showed marks made by some tool. There were also polished spots that would have come from wear. This suggests the claws had been deliberately removed from eagles, strung together and worn, the researchers say.
  • Parthian gold jewelry, c.200AD (pictured) – Parthian gold jewelry discovered in graves located at Nineveh in northern Iraq, near the ancient border between Parthia and Imperial Rome. They show how Roman cultural practices gradually influenced Parthian burial customs. These treasures are on display at the Persian Empire collection of the British Museum.


Metal – Gold, Silver, Palladium and Platinum



Lapidary and glass – gem tumbler, diamond cutter, polisher, saw, mill, polishing compound, drill bit, adhesives, water, collant,

  • Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness

Jewelry manufacturing – artisan, large-scale

3-D printing – designs, specialty “printing” – metal, composite

Jewelry or Jewellery? – British jewellery; American jewelry. The word originates from the old French word jouel. The Commonwealth (including Canada) has jeweller and the US has jeweler for a jewel(le)ry seller.

That’s engineering

  • mineral – any substance that is neither animal nor vegetable; a substance obtained by mining, as gold, silver, copper

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