Isothermal chart. View of climates & productions / drawn from the accounts of Humboldt & others, by W.C. Woodbridge, 1823.

Isothermal chart

Weather forecasting

Global Climate Models

General Circulation Model (GCM) – a mathematical model of the general circulation of a planetary atmosphere or ocean and based on the Navier-Stokes equations on a rotating sphere with thermodynamic terms for various energy sources (radiation, latent heat). These equations are the basis for complex computer programs commonly used for simulating the atmosphere or ocean of the Earth. Atmospheric and Oceanic GCMs (AGCM and OGCM) are key components of Global Climate Models along with sea-ice and land-surface components. GCMs and global climate models are widely applied for weather forecasting, understanding the climate, and projecting climate change.

General Circulation Models and global climate models are widely applied for weather forecasting, understanding the climate, and projecting climate change.

Global Desertification Vulnerability Map, 1998

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