Electronics – the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. Although considered to be a theoretical branch of physics, the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems is an essential technique in the fields of electronic engineering and computer engineering.


Semiconductor devices

  • single discrete devices
  • integrated circuits (ICs) consist of a number—from a few to billions—of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate.

Semiconductor electronics, mid-20th century – The physical foundation of the virtual world

A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material and either used as switches, to turn electronic signals on or off – or, as amplifiers.

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  • The 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the invention of the transistor to William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain
  • Germanium (32) was the first semiconductor discovered. It was commonly used between 1950 and 1970 in electronics. Later germanium was replaced by pure silicon in transistors, diodes and rectifiers because of better electrical properties of the Si. Because germanium, unlike other semiconductors, is very sensitive to infrared it is still used in spectroscopes and other optical equipment.

digital circuit, integrated circuit,

electronic circuit, series and parallel circuits,

Kirchhoff’s circuit laws, capacitor, capacitor (component), switched-mode power supply, inductor, , operational amplifier, Avalanche transistor, inverter (electrical)], [[http://engineering.wikia.com/wiki/Avalanche_diode|Avalanche diode, electric power, rectifier,

electric current, Alternating Current (AC), Direct Current (DC)

That’s engineering

  • resistor – a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that resists the flow of current, producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm’s law.
  • semiconductor – a substance that conducts electricity better than an insulator but not as well as a conductor. Silicon is a semiconductor used to make microchips.

Engineering ideas

  • current, voltage, Ohm’s law, transistor,

Do it
Here are some challenges for you to work on…

  • Transistor Recycler – play the game. Sort e-waste for recycling.
  • see-through speaker that conducts electricity, is elastic like skin and vibrates like Jell-O. The new device could be used in sound systems. It could be used to build soft robots or artificial muscles that can stretch alongside living tiss