paper

Printing press c.1811

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, printing, packaging, cleaning, and a number of industrial and construction processes.

The pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, possibly as early as the year 105 A.D.

Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is used universally today for writing and packaging.

A newspaper is a written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/ entertainment, society and sports.

In 1814, The Times of London acquired a printing press capable of making 1,100 impressions per minute. Soon, it was adapted to print on both sides of a page at once. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus available to a larger part of the population.

Since the 1980s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-colour process, offset printing. In addition, desktop computers, word processing software, graphics software, digital cameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the newspaper production process. These technologies have enabled newspapers to publish colour photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design.

Individual fibres are ~10 μm wide

Engineering ideas

  • cellulose, fiber, newsprint, printing press