Buildings in Shanghai, China

Architecture – the art and science of designing buildings and structures. A wider definition includes the design of the total built environment, from the macrolevel of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the microlevel of furniture.


  • needs – shelter, security, worship, etc
  • means – available building materials and required skills

Renaissance – emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion.

  • architects – Michaelangelo, Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci
  • no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related skills or trades

Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass consumption and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftmanship, became cheaper under machine production.

Modern Architecture. Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund, formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here.

Bauhaus school, founded in Germany in 1919, consciously rejected history and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.


  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Frank O. Gehry – “Mr. Gehry’s architecture is known for its reliance on harsh, unfinished materials and its juxtaposition of simple, almost primal, geometric forms…(His) work is vastly more intelligent and controlled than it sounds to the uninitiated; he is an architect of immense gifts who dances on the line separating architecture from art but who manages never to let himself fall.”


  • Building material
  • Environmental design – urban, green, sustainable

Great architecture (from Wonders of the World)

  • Pyramids of Giza, Cairo, Egypt
  • Temple of Karnak, Luxor, Egypt
  • The Great Temple, Abu Simbel, Egypt
  • Persepolis, Shiraz, Iran
  • The Parthenon, Athens, Greece
  • Khazneh El-Farun, Petra, Jordan
  • The Colosseum, Rome, Italy
  • Temple of Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico
  • The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico
  • Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey
  • St. Mark’s Basilica, Venice, Italy
  • Piazza Del Miracoli, Pisa, Italy
  • Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris, France
  • Angkor Thom, Siem Reap, Cambodia
  • The Alhambra, Grenada, Spain
  • The Great Wall, China
  • The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia
  • St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City
  • The Amber Fort and Palace, Amber, India
  • Palace of Versailles, Paris, France
  • Taj Mahal, Agra, India
  • The Capitol, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Eiffel Tower, Paris, France
  • Sagranda Familia, Barcelono, Spain
  • Empire State Building, New York, United States
  • Guggenheim Museum, New York, United States
  • Metropolitan Cathedral, Brasilia, Brazil
  • Opera House, Sydney, Australia
  • Olympic Stadium and Tower, Montreal, Canada
  • Kansai Airport, Osaka, Japan
  • The City of Arts and Science, Valencia, Spain
  • Guggenheim Museum, Bibao, Spain
  • Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Jin Mau Tower, Shanghai, China
  • Eeichstag, Berlin, Germany
  • The Experience Music Project, Seattle, United States

That’s engineering

  • criterion – a measurable standard or attribute of a design; for example, weight and size are both criteria. Criteria are used to compare different possible designs and determine which better solve the design problem

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  • Architecture – the art and science of designing buildings and structures.